Health Sciences University Gülhane Medical Faculty Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department Lecturer Assoc. Dr. İbrahim Durukan said that the most important reason for hyperactivity is genetic predisposition.
Durukan explained that hyperactivity is a disease that occurs in the brain as a result of the interaction of environmental and biological factors such as the mother's smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy, difficult and problematic birth, and premature birth.
Occurs in preschool age
According to Durukan, hyperactivity starts in preschool ages. Compared to their healthy peers, children have symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining attention and hyperactivity.
The prevalence of hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children is 5.5%. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is detected in one out of every 20 children.
Stating that children are usually diagnosed after the age of 6 due to increased complaints during the primary school period, Durukan said:
"Teachers say that children can't pay attention to the lesson, their attention span is shorter than their peers, they misread questions in exams, they are active during the lesson, they talk persistently without speaking, the parents can't take care of their school goods, they can't sit at the beginning of the lesson for a long time, their academic success is low, including games. They say that they get bored with everything very quickly, that they often have problems in their friendships, and that they have to apply to the emergency polyclinics of hospitals because of clumsiness. In order to make a diagnosis, the problems must have arisen in at least two different environments such as school, home or friend environment, and must have been ongoing for at least 6 months. Complaints should not have arisen after situations that cause psychosocial stress such as divorce, death, chronic diseases.
The diagnosis should be made by a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Specialist. In the diagnosis process, the specialist has to send the teacher and the family forms and scales about the current problems after the child's psychiatric examination. Afterwards, the family and the teacher observe and evaluate. Durukan continued:
“A diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is made based on the data and observations obtained as a result of all these evaluation methods. It is common for families not to accept the situation after the diagnosis is made. In order to prevent this, it is very useful for the attending physician to inform the family about the causes and nature of the disease, the treatment process and the course.”
Assoc. Dr. İbrahim Durukan says that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be improved with medication.
Durukan said, “In addition to drug treatment, informing the family about the disease and school-family-physician cooperation are also very important.”
“Parents must be firm and consistent with their children. Clear boundaries must be set for their children. The child should know that studying is the responsibility of all students and this should be clearly expressed to the child, and the child should not be overwhelmed with rewards in return for studying. An applicable study program including the lesson and other activities at home should be made together and written down. The rooms of these children should be plain and quiet, without the sound of television, telephone and music. There should be only course materials on the study desk, preparations should be completed before starting the study, there should be no pictures or toys that may distract attention.
What happens if the diagnosis is made late?
Durukan listed the problems that can occur when attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is not diagnosed or diagnosed late:
They find it difficult to adapt to the school environment. Academic success always lags behind the mental capacity of the child. They have problems in establishing and maintaining friendship relations. They tend to make friends with problem children in adolescence and adulthood. They cannot provide continuity in their work and marriage lives. They tend to change jobs frequently and divorce. They are more likely to face legal problems. They tend to start using alcohol-substance more frequently and earlier than their peers.
Some of the parents think that drug treatment can cause some problems. Durukan says that drug therapy does not cause growth retardation or infertility.