Identity Development of Children in Adolescence is a transition process of great importance in an individual's life. In this period of rapid physical, mental and emotional changes, young people are in the process of discovering their own identities and making sense of their social roles. Adolescence is one of the periods when identity development is most intense, and pedagogues have developed pedagogical approaches to support children in adolescence by focusing on their identity development and to encourage the formation of a healthy identity.
Identity development during adolescence includes the process of getting to know oneself, discovering one's values, developing self-confidence, and determining future goals. Adolescents are trying to create and give meaning to their identities in a period when social influences increase. In this process, pedagogues use many pedagogical strategies that support identity formation by guiding adolescents.
Individual counseling is one of the pedagogical approaches to adolescents' identity development. In individual sessions, they meet with pedagogues to help adolescents understand their unique identities. During these sessions, adolescents begin to understand themselves better by sharing their feelings and thoughts. Pedagogues ask adolescents questions and encourage them to discover their interests, values, and talents. The individual counseling process is extremely important for adolescents to establish their own identities and self-confidence.
Group work is another pedagogical approach used to contribute to the identity development of adolescents by interacting with each other. Group work offers adolescents the opportunity to encounter different perspectives, establish empathy and improve their social skills. Adolescents have the opportunity to think and discuss their own identities by sharing similar experiences in groups. During this process, various activities and games are carried out for adolescents to express themselves and discover their emotional and social aspects. Group work provides important support in the identity formation process of adolescents and strengthens their social relationships.
Artistic and creative activities are also used as a pedagogical approach in the identity development of adolescents. Artistic activities such as music, dance and painting enable adolescents to express themselves and express their inner world. Such activities enable adolescents to release their emotional expression, develop their creativity and increase their self-confidence. Artistic activities help adolescents discover themselves and create their identities.
Identity development is a complex process for children in adolescence and depends on many factors. Factors such as family, peers, media, and society's general values influence adolescents' identity formation. Therefore, pedagogues should take these factors into account when supporting children in adolescence.
Family is the factor that has the most fundamental impact on the adolescent's identity formation. Adolescents shape their identities by internalizing their relationships with their families and family values. Pedagogues should aim to support adolescents' identity development by collaborating with families. Families can be guided to support their children and allow them to discover their identities. Additionally, it is important for families to understand the emotional and psychological needs of their teenage children and provide them with a safe environment.
Peer relationships play an important role in the identity formation process of adolescents. Adolescents explore their identities quite intensely through interaction with their peers. During this period, friend groups can be built on similar interests and values. Pedagogues should support adolescents to develop healthy peer relationships and encourage them to strengthen their social skills. Activities such as group work and interactive games can help adolescents develop social skills.
Media is another factor that has a strong influence on adolescents' identity development. Media such as television programs, movies, music, and social media play an important role in shaping adolescents' values, behaviors, and identities. Pedagogues can help adolescents learn to critically evaluate media content and be conscious of media messages that affect their identity. Education and guidance on media literacy and conscious media consumption are important.
General values of society are also one of the factors affecting the identity formation of adolescents. Adolescents may want to develop an identity that is compatible with society's values. However, it is important that the values accepted in society are compatible with the adolescent's own uniqueness. Pedagogues can teach adolescents to develop skills in questioning and criticizing their own values. Understanding and internalizing universal values such as freedom, equality and tolerance can also contribute to the identity formation process.
Adolescence is a period in which identity development is most intense, and pedagogues have developed pedagogical approaches to support the identity formation of children in adolescence. Pedagogical strategies such as individual counseling, group work and artistic activities are important tools in the process of adolescents discovering their identities, developing their self-confidence and determining their future goals. Pedagogues must constantly equip themselves with current pedagogical approaches to understand the uniqueness and needs of adolescents.
- Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. W. W. Norton & Company.
- Kroger, J. (2007). Identity Development: Adolescence Through Adulthood. Sage Publications.
- Smetana, J. G., Campione-Barr, N., & Metzger, A. (2006). Adolescent Development in Interpersonal and Societal Contexts. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 255-284.
- Steinberg, L. (2014). Age of Opportunity: Lessons from the New Science of Adolescence. HoughtonMifflinHarcourt.
- Youniss, J., & Yates, M. (1997). Community Service and Social Responsibility in Youth. University of Chicago Press.