The entrance of coffee to the Ottoman lands with the Governor of Yemen Özdemir Pasha and its inclusion in the palace in 1517 is the beginning of the recognition of coffee as a cultural and historical heritage.
In the past, it was served to the sultans and guests in the palace. With the title of the first coffeehouse opened in the world in 1554, Kivahan in Tahtakale, Istanbul, started to affect social life. Coffeehouses, which spread in a short time at that time and were expressed in hundreds, became places for people to socialize by creating their own sub-genres. Afterwards, this tradition continued inside the houses.
Reaching readers with its first issue Breakfast Coffee According to the article in the magazine, coffee became popular in a very short time with its arrival in the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The presentation made to the sultan by three people included certain rituals. The presentation of coffee was a ceremony in itself with its coffee, water, styles, cups and jugs. In those days, coffee was flavored with jam and Turkish delight and served plain. Before, the mouth was cleaned with water, then coffee was sweetened with sweets and the highest level of aromas were taken. Drinking coffee used to come from Yemen, so the phrase “Coffee comes from Yemen” dates back to those times. Before going into the presence of the sultan, the guests were served coffee and Turkish delight on a plate called “Gülbahar Sahan” in a separate reception room.
Hürrem Sultan was a coffee lover. His bride Nurbanu Sultan was one of the historical characters who played a major role in the spread of coffee to Europe. Cecillia Venier-Baffo, whose real name is Cecillia Venier-Baffo, who was originally from Venice, attracted the attention of Hürrem Sultan, and her son II. Selim's wife is an important name. In addition to her beauty, she played a role in the transition of coffee to Venice by getting along with the Venetian merchants who were leading the trade in Istanbul at that time.
The effects of coffee on Ottoman-Turkish culture continued with the opening of coffee houses. According to the rank and status of the people, sub-types of coffee houses such as neighborhood coffee houses, semai coffee houses, tulumbacı coffee houses, artisan coffee houses, Janissary coffee houses began to form among the people... All of them had rituals and rules that were not written in themselves.
While creating a cultural structure that cannot be explained, coffee has also included words derived from coffee, which are not found in any language in the world, into our daily lives. While breakfast formed the name of a meal derived from "under-coffee", it took its place in our lives as the color brown.
Coffee continues to be an important part of life with its values still kept alive in the footsteps of Ottoman and Turkish culture and its 40 years of memory. It is always an excuse for “fatigue coffee”, “pleasure coffee” with happy moments, long conversations when things are done. Whether we believe it or not, the shapes that are tried to be interpreted in the cups that are turned upside down are always in our lives with the tradition of "coffee fortune telling" that has been going on for generations. A unique beverage with a unique production technique, which has been included in the UNESCO's Cultural Heritage List.
Coffee culture in the world
The transition of coffee to Venice was in two ways. The first was from the Ottoman channel. The second branch was from Austria with the 2nd Siege of Vienna. The Ottoman army, which returned unsuccessfully from the siege, left the coffee sacks it had brought along with some food items in the siege area in order not to carry it back. Just when it was about to be burned and destroyed, it was taken with permission by Kolschitzky, an Austrian of Polish origin who was found as a spy in the Ottoman Empire, and coffee began to be roasted and drunk in European lands.
This delicious drink soon managed to attract other European countries such as France and Italy. In particular, Austria has taken this heritage one step ahead in this regard. The coffee culture that has survived since then is included in the UNESCO's Cultural Heritage List as “Das Kaffeehaus”.
While it initially appealed to an audience dominated by artists, especially in Europe, it gradually spread among the public. Compositions were composed by famous musicians on behalf of coffee. Writers like Balzac, who drank 30 cups of coffee a day, put coffee at the forefront in many of their works and discourses. Almost every country in Europe tried to create a coffee culture within itself. They did this by creating their own unique types of coffee, and even tried to customize the same coffee by giving it unique names within their own culture. For example, while the Austrians call the espresso of the Italians “schwarzer”, “cafe au'lait” is preferred in France instead of cappuccino. Locally special coffee types made with small touches are also a part of the culture. Macchiato made with a little milk foam, flavored with a little cinnamon and vanilla-style spices, Spanish “cafe con miel”, a different version of latte like lagrima…
How is coffee drunk in Europe?
Taste differences between countries also play an important role in the diversification of coffees. Italians like to start the day with a strong coffee. He generally prefers espresso and ristretto-style one-shot, quick-drinking, full and full-bodied coffees. As you descend from the north to the south of Italy, more woody flavors and espresso types that include the hard robusta variety in the blends begin to gain weight. Americano sizes are also a little shorter than normal and are prepared with a mixture of hot water and espresso. Espresso romano, an espresso option combined with a small piece of lemon peel, also has an important place in Italian coffee culture.
It is possible to say that dairy products are consumed more in countries such as Austria, France and the Netherlands. Especially in the Netherlands, the amount of coffee is lower than the amount of milk. One of the most remarkable types of coffee preferences that vary according to the tastes of the countries is “kaffeost”. This unique coffee of Sweden is drunk with a piece of cheese unique to the country. “Pharisaer”, one of Germany's most famous coffees, is a local coffee made with rum and from the class of alcoholic coffees. Its consumption is quite common.
In Turkey, Turkish coffee, which is even stronger and fuller than espresso, takes the first place. It is the only type of coffee that is cooked with its grounds and continues to be brewed even while drinking. Although there are aromatic variations combined with coffee, such as mastic gum and cardamom, a whopping Turkish coffee has become a part of our culture for generations. It continues to hold its place today.
America and coffee
Although it seems like a society that was acquainted with coffee around the 19th century, coffee quickly settled into social life in America. Preferred coffees usually have a softer flavor range that we can call diluted with water.
It shouldn't be hard to say that you have a habit of filter coffee. But you can see the opposite of this, and the type of coffee they created uniquely, “red eye” or “lazy eye”, has also been added to the literature. Adding 120 ml of decaffeinated brewed coffee to a double shot espresso creates an intense flavor, hence the name.
The locations that led the trade, such as the Spice and Silk Road in the past, are being replaced by an invisible coffee route that starts from Ethiopia and spreads to the world. The fact that coffee is the biggest trade product after oil today is the biggest proof of this.